- Mercedes-Benz cars of the class S (W220)
Identification numbers of the car
Acquisition of spare parts
Technology of service, tool and equipment of a workplace
Poddomkrachivaniye and towage
Start of the engine from the auxiliary power supply
Checks of readiness of the car for operation
Automobile chemicals, oils and lubricants
Diagnostics of malfunctions
+ Operation manual
+ Routine maintenance
+ Cooling system and heating
+ Power supply system and release
+ Engine electric equipment
+ Automatic transmission
+ Power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
+ Schemes of electric equipment
Checks of readiness of the car for operation
All are listed in the Section, subject to check, knots and systems and are offered ways of independent check of their state and functioning. On the basis of the analysis of results of such checks it is possible to estimate readiness of the car for operation and passing of checkup. Naturally, independently carried out inspections cannot be compared on the accuracy of measurements with professional, in view of lack of the corresponding qualification of the operator and inaccessibility of the special diagnostic equipment. If during conducting independent checks need of performance of repair or replacement any of a component is revealed, address appropriate sections of the corresponding Heads of the Management for the purpose of obtaining fuller information.
In most cases performance of the forthcoming checks demands participation of the assistant in them.
The checks made from the driver's place
Parking (manual) brake
Check of functioning of the parking brake is made by full squeezing of a pedal. At the same time it is necessary to make sure that the lever course size (the number of clicks of a ratchet) demanded for emergence of a feeling of the full resistance caused by raising of the brake mechanism is not excessive. If this requirement is not fulfilled, it is necessary to check serviceability of brake mechanisms of back wheels of the car and/or correctness of adjustment of cables of the drive of the parking brake.
Having completely cocked the parking brake, shake the lever of its management here and there (knock on it from sides) - at the same time the brake should not be released, - otherwise wear of a ratchet or a doggie of the lever takes place. Release the parking brake and shake the lever here and there for identification of signs of wear of the axial bearing. Check reliability of fastening of the lever and make sure of lack of traces of corrosion of the bearing body element in a radius of 30 cm around a lever support. If the condition of fixture of the lever does not give in to check from interior of the car, estimate it later during the checks made under the car.
Make sure that the brake pedal during the squeezing and an otpuskaniye does not make any sounds, does not show strong indications of excessive wear of axial plugs, also check a condition of an overlay of a pedal. Make sure of lack of signs of leak of brake fluid on a pedal, a floor or the surface of a rug around a pedal speaking about violation of tightness of sealing cuffs of the main brake cylinder.
Squeeze out a pedal at first slowly, and then quickly, trying to obtain a possibility of keeping of steady pressure. Create pressure and make sure that the pedal does not begin then to fail slowly to a floor that would indicate again problems with the main brake cylinder. Release a pedal, wait several seconds, then again squeeze out it until emergence of firm resistance. Make sure that resistance begins to arise already on the top site of the course of a pedal. If for emergence of resistance the pedal is required to be drowned almost to a floor, it indicates violation of adjustment of brake mechanisms. If the firm resistance to squeezing of a pedal does not arise at all, i.e. softness of the course of a pedal takes place, it speaks about hit in hydraulic system of air and need of full pumping of system.
Check serviceability of functioning of the vacuum amplifier of brakes, having squeezed out several times a brake pedal for depression dumping. Then, holding a pedal of squeezed out, start the engine. At engine launch resistance to squeezing of a pedal has to change (to decrease). If it not so, exists probability of "leakages" of vacuum hoses of the block of the amplifier of brakes or actually its malfunction.
Steering wheel and column
Check a steering wheel for existence of cracks or weakening of landing of a nave, spokes or a rim. Shake a wheel here and there, then up-down the relation to a column. Make sure of lack of a side play of a wheel on a column which is the evidence of weakening of a nut of fastening of a wheel or wear of shlits of a shaft. Continue to shake a wheel as it is described above, but add still easy rotation it to the right-to the left. Make sure of lack of an excessive side play of the wheel speaking about excessive wear of the top basic bearing of a shaft, the cardan hinge.
Windshield and rear-view mirrors
On a windshield there should not be cracks and the other damages capable is noticeable to limit the sector of the review of the driver, or the screen wipers preventing work. Existence of small it is erose, the stones left at blows it is admissible. Any stickers and suspended souvenirs also should not limit the review of the driver.
Rear-view mirrors have to be reliably fixed, are not damaged and have to give in to adjustment. The door mirror from the passenger party of the car is not subject to an ekzamenovka, on condition of serviceability and existence of a possibility of the use of a rear-view mirror fixed from the inside a windshield.
Seats and seat belts
The checks given below belong to seat belts of both forward, and back seats.
Carefully check structure of material of seat belts for existence of cuts, signs of strong wiping or aging of material. If the belts of inertial type equipped with returnable devices at survey are established completely extend them from a drum cover.
Clasp and undo each of belts, checking serviceability of functioning of mechanisms of locks (both for a zashchelkivaniye, and for opening) and their reliability. If belts of inertial type are established check serviceability of functioning of returnable devices.
Check reliability of fastening of belts to elements of a body and a condition of their basic knots, access to which is possible without removal of panels of an upholstery. Existence of signs of strong corrosion or deformation of the bearing body elements in belt support radius also is inadmissible. Some of knots of fastening of seat belts are inaccessible and are not even subject to external survey from interior of the car, in this case check of their state has to be made later at survey of the bottom. If any of parts of the mechanism of a belt are fixed directly on a front seat, support of a seat have to be reliably screwed on a floor, and their state is subjected to the same check as described above for support of belts.
Check reliability of fastening of seat belts
Front seats also have to be reliably recorded and should not allow spontaneous change of the situation. Backs have to be fixed reliably in vertical position. Inclusion of marker lights and stoplights should not exert impact on functioning of indexes of turns - if it not so, the reason is usually covered in bad quality of grounding in blocks of the back combined lamps. Similarly make sure of serviceability of functioning of the alarm system which has to work both at included, and at the switched-off ignition. Check a condition of lenses (see above).
Forward doors have to open and be closed from within the car and it is reliable to be fixed in a closed position.
Include ignition and involve a horn. The horn has to make the pure sound which is well heard by other participants of traffic. Application of the gongs, sirens or 2-tone horns established as additional accessories independently is inadmissible.
Check functioning of washers and screenwashes. Washers have to give a stream of liquid of an adequate pressure and an expense, and their nozzles are adjusted so that streams got to the upper edge of a windshield.
Involve screen wipers along with washers and make sure that brushes qualitatively wipe a windshield in all range of the course. On glass there should not be potek and strips of the smeared road film limiting the review of the driver as in rectilinear, and peripheral sectors of a field of vision. Otherwise replace brushes.
Squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake at the included ignition and ask the assistant to check functioning of stoplights. When squeezing a pedal stoplights have to light up, and at an otpuskaniye - to die away. If only one of stoplights does not burn, then most likely burn-out of a lamp or bad electric contact on the boss of a lamp is a cause of failure (or near it). If the refusal of both stoplights takes place, then it is necessary to check their safety lock and the switch. It is not necessary to exclude completely also probability of simultaneous burn-out of both lamps. The refusal of lamps of stoplights of switching off at an otpuskaniye of a pedal of a brake is the testimony of malfunction of the switch.
The checks made on the car which is on the earth
Registration plates and identification numbers of the car
Forward and back registration plates have to be in satisfactory condition, to be reliably attached and easy to be read.
The identification number of the car (VIN) located on Schild under a cowl has to be legible.
Include marker lights and make sure that both forward, and back dimensions, and also lamps of illumination of registration plate lit up. Lenses and reflectors have to be pure, intact and are reliably fixed. Integrity of lenses has special value in back lamps where this world of the damaged fire can be confused by other participants of traffic with a signal of inclusion of a backing. Pollution of lenses causes noticeable decrease in intensity of light which is let out by a lamp.
Include head headlights and make sure that blocks of both near, and driving beam function normally and with intensity, identical to both headlights. Decrease in intensity of a luminescence of any of head headlights is usually connected with violation of quality of electric contacts or strong corrosion of an internal reflector. Check lenses of head headlights for existence of cracks and the stones left as a result of blows it is erose. Such defects are inadmissible, however usually qualification of degree of their gravity is a subjective factor. Remember that all lighting fixtures have to work smoothly at the first switching of switches. Percussion on the block of the lighting fixture for the purpose of its inclusion is inadmissible action.
Head headlights have to not only to be adjusted so that not to stick together other participants of traffic in the mode of passing beam, but also to provide adequate illumination of a roadbed in front of the car. Check of adjustment of the direction of head headlights is made by means of the special optical equipment therefore, in a case lack of confidence in its correctness it is necessary to address beforehand experts for conducting check and updating of the provision of headlights.
Having included ignition, check functioning of indexes of turns. Make sure that both forward, and back of them radiate yellow light and blink with a frequency about one-two times a second. Besides, the obligatory requirement is serviceability of indicators of inclusion of indexes of turns on the control panel.
Check functioning of fog lights. Obligatory check usually concerns only the fog light established outside which is included in a basic equipment and located from one of the parties of the car. The headlight has to be reliably fixed and has to make a bright, ostronapravlenny ray of light of red color. The control lamp on the control panel (or in the switch) also has to function.
From a motive compartment check brake tubes for existence of signs of leaks, traces of corrosion, unreliability of fastening, protertost and other damages. Check the main brake cylinder and the block of the vacuum amplifier of brakes for existence of signs of leaks, reliability of fastening and signs of excessive corrosion both support a component, and the body elements surrounding them. The tank of the main brake cylinder has to be reliably fixed; liquid level has to be in it between the top and lower marks in walls.
Turn a steering wheel so that the flexible hose of the right forward brake mechanism could be examined. Carefully check a hose for existence of cracks and signs of aging of rubber. Defects the easiest come to light when bending a hose in half and existence them is almost inevitable on sites where the hose is connected to unions. Turn a steering wheel against the stop to the left, then - to the right and make sure that the hose does not adjoin to a wheel disk, the tire or any of the moving component of a suspension bracket or steering. Having asked the assistant to squeeze out strongly a brake pedal, check a hose for existence of swellings and signs of leak of liquid under pressure. Repeat checks for a hose of the left brake mechanism. In case of detection of defects make necessary replacements.
Check tubes and hoses of brake lines for existence of signs of damages and aging of material.
Check flexible brake hoses for existence of cracks and signs of aging of material
Steering mechanism and suspension bracket
Ask the assistant to rotate slightly a steering wheel to the right-to the left in the range till the moments of the beginning of transfer of rotation to the operated wheels. Try to estimate at the same time the size of a free wheeling of a steering wheel until the beginning of operation of the steering mechanism. The size of this side play gives information on degree of wear of hinges of a steering column, wear and reliability of fastening of the coupling of connection of a column with the steering mechanism or unreliability of fastening, wear or violation of adjustment of actually steering mechanism. Generally the free wheeling of a steering wheel should not exceed 1.3 cm.
Ask the assistant to rotate strongly a steering wheel in both directions in the range prior to turn of the operated wheels. At the same time you watch closely behavior of hinges, drafts and other elements of the steering drive and knots of their fastening. The components showing signs of wear, damage, deformation or unreliability of fastening have to be repaired or replaced. If the car is equipped with system of hydrostrengthening of a wheel, check also reliability of fastening of the pump of system, a state and correctness of a tension of his driving belt. The system has to function and not show regularly signs of leak of hydraulic liquid or damage of hoses. Additional checks can be made later when the car is lifted above the ground and access under it considerably will become simpler.
Make sure of flatness of landing of the car and correctness of height of a road gleam. Make sure that there is a sufficient gap between components of a suspension bracket and buffers of the course of compression guaranteeing a full speed of a suspension bracket.
Check of a state and reliability of fastening of protective covers of a steering rack
System of production of the fulfilled gases
Start the engine and, having asked the assistant to press a rags lump to a cut of an exhaust pipe, check all system for existence of signs of the leaks which are shown in the form of rhythmically pulsing streams of the smoke or the hissing sound proceeding directly from a leak source. Check overall performance of the muffler, having made sure that the level of the sound made during the operation of the engine corresponds expected for the car of this type. In case the system generally is in satisfactory condition, insignificant local leaks can be eliminated by means of a patent special remnabor.
The checks made on the car lifted above the ground at freely rotating wheels
By Poddomkratte the car, having reliably fixed it on the props got under the car frame points bearing loading. Establish props so that they did not make contact with suspension bracket components (including when turning forward wheels). Make sure that all wheels do not concern the earth, and operated are capable to turn from an emphasis against the stop.
Check a condition of rubber protective covers of a steering rack. Make sure that on them there are no cuts, signs of leaks and unreliability of fastening of bandages. If management is equipped with system of hydrostrengthening, check its rubber hydraulic hoses, tubes and knots of their joining for existence of signs of aging of material, leaks, protertost and other damages. Attentively see all components of steering on existence of signs of jamming or too hard course, loss of forelocks and other lock devices, and also traces of excessive corrosion of elements of a body in radius of 30 cm around knots of fastening of any of a component.
Ask the assistant to turn a steering wheel against the stop at first on the left, then to the right. Make sure that at the same time steering components (columns, the mechanism and the drive) move smoothly and freely and that any of them (including disks and tires of wheels) does not make contact with hoses or tubes of the brake system or any elements of a body of the car.
Forward and back suspension brackets and bearings of wheels
Starting with right forward, serially carry out an inspection of a condition of bearings of wheels, spherical support of a suspension bracket, rotary knots and fixture a suspension bracket component. For this purpose undertake a wheel in points on 3 and for 9 hours and strongly pull it. Existence of any side play in the transferred knots is inadmissible. Check cases of rubber and metal plugs a suspension bracket component for existence of signs of aging or damage of material, and components on existence of bends, deformations and signs of excessive corrosion. Check existence of all forelocks, lock washers or other kontryashchy equipment of fixture a suspension bracket component. Make sure of lack of traces of strong corrosion of elements of a body in a radius of 30 cm around fastening points a component.
Existence of any excessive side play can be established by introduction between a support of a component and its body of mount or the big screw-driver and their use as the lever. At the same time it is possible to establish whether wear of the axial plug is the reason of a weak point, a fixing bolt or actually a time (often are developed to an oval form bolted openings).
Now undertake a wheel in points on 12 and for 6 hours and repeat the check described above. Rotate a wheel whether checking there are no zakusyvaniye points in its bearing.
Repeat check for the second forward wheel, and then for both back.
Check rubber plugs of all support of a suspension bracket (arrow) for existence of damages and signs of aging of material
Sharply pull a wheel for verification of an excessive side play of bearings and a suspension bracket component
Check assemblies of racks for existence of damages, corrosion, deep cavities of rods of pistons or damages of casings. Besides, make sure of reliability of fixture of racks.
Check reliability of fastening of basic knots, existence of signs of excessive wear, corrosion, cracks, deformations, both other damages a component and their plugs. Make sure of lack of signs of leak of air and damages of hoses or tubes.
Check shock-absorbers for existence of signs of serious leaks. Check fixture and plugs of basic knots for existence of wear and damage of cases of blocks.
Having turned against the stop a steering wheel, serially rotate each of forward wheels and examine protective covers of the hinges of equal angular speeds (HEAS) (where are provided) on existence of cracks and other damages. Check also reliability of fastening of covers to the corresponding cases the bandages.
Continuing to rotate a wheel, make sure that the power shaft is not bent and in any other manner it is not damaged.
If it is possible, without disassembling mechanisms, check a condition of brake shoes and disks. Make sure that material of frictional slips is not worn-out excessively and that on surfaces of disks there are no cracks, cavities, furrows and other signs of excessive wear.
Attentively check a condition of rigid brake tubes under the bottom of the car and flexible hoses of back brake mechanisms. Existence of traces of excessive corrosion, protertost, unreliability of fastening of nipple connections of tubes, and also cracks, signs of aging of material, leaks and swellings under pressure of flexible hoses is inadmissible.
Check supports and boards of brake mechanisms for existence of signs of the leak of brake fluid telling about violation of quality of hydraulic consolidations corresponding a component.
Slowly rotating serially each of wheels, ask the assistant to squeeze out a foot brake, and then to release it. Make sure at the same time of serviceability of functioning of each of brake mechanisms, and also that the wheel rotates freely at a brake pedal otpuskaniye. It is not possible to check efficiency of operation of brake mechanisms without use of the special equipment, however trial runs (in the presence of the corresponding road and weather conditions) are capable to reveal effect of withdrawal of the car aside at the rectilinear movement.
Check the mechanism of the drive of the parking brake for an istrepyvaniye and break of cables, excessive wear and unreliability of fastening of drafts. Having asked the assistant to cock, and then to release the parking brake, make sure of reliability of operation and an otpuskaniye of brake mechanisms of each of back wheels of the car.
Power supply system and production of the fulfilled gases
Check a condition of the fuel tank, tubes, hoses and nipple connections (including connections on the pump, the filter and system of injection of fuel the preliminary pump, the filter and TNVD). All components have to be reliably fixed and not have signs of leaks. The cover of the fuel tank has to be closed reliably to conform on type to requirements imposed by manufacturers of the car.
Check system of release on all length for existence of damages of support and suspensions, reliability of fastening of collars of butt connections of sections and traces of corrosion.
Wheels and tires
Attentively you watch serially tires of all wheels as with external, and from the inside, and also on all surface of a protector. Existence of cuts, cracks, swellings, consolidations, stratifications of a protector, and also exposure of a cord and framework of the tire owing to wear or damages is inadmissible. Make sure of density of landing of a board of the tire on a wheel disk rim. Check landing and a condition of the valve of a rating of the tire (nipple). Rotate wheels, checking disks for existence of signs of deformations, in particular on a rim.
Make sure that the tires of the correct size corresponding on a standard size to make of the car are installed. Installation on one axis of tires of different type or the size is inadmissible. Use at normal operation of the car of spare tires of special (compact) type is inadmissible. Besides, tires have to be pumped up with the required pressure.
By means of special adaptation measure tire protector pattern depth. By the safety rules of traffic accepted now the pattern has to be looked through accurately on all area of a protector and have depth not less than 1.6 mm at least on three quarters of width of a protector. A certain wear of a protector on external and internal edges is admissible, however it has to have the form of an equal continuous ring and the pattern of a protector on the worn-out site has to be looked through also. Any excessive wear from listed above can be a sign of violation of adjustment of angles of installation of forward wheels which have to be checked before tires finally fail. More detailed information on typical wear of protectors and adjustment of angles of installation of forward wheels address the corresponding Heads of the Management.
Corrosion of a body
Check all bearing elements of a body and a frame of the car on sites subject to loads of existence of signs of corrosion. And bearing all profile elements of a frame, thresholds, cross beams, racks of a body, a support and fixture of elements of a suspension bracket and steering, a component of the brake system and seat belts are considered loaded. The corrosion significantly reducing thickness of metal of the bearing sites of a body of the car and causing their easing is inadmissible. In this case the car has to be subjected to body repair.
Check of toxicity of the fulfilled gases
Warm up the engine up to the normal working temperature and make sure of implementation of preliminary requirements to conducting check of adjustment of turns and quality of mix of idling (i.e. that the system of ignition normally functions, and the element of the air filter is in satisfactory condition).
Before measurements lift the frequency of rotation of the engine to value approximately in 2500 rpm and keep it at this level about 20 seconds. Again dump turns to single and get accustomed to the smoke which is coming out an exhaust pipe of the car. If turns of idling are obviously exceeded, or in case of emission from system of production of clearly noticeable dark blue or black smoke during time more than in 5 seconds, the car should be subjected to repair. Blue smoke is a sign of burning out of motive oil (wear of maslootrazhatelny caps of cores of valves, the directing plugs of valves, piston rings or a mirror of cylinders) while black it is possible to consider the evidence of incomplete combustion of fuel (pollution of an element of the air filter, excessive reenrichment of mix or other problems in work of system of injection of fuel, bad work of nozzles of the diesel engine).
If turns of idling and an external condition of an exhaust are normal, it is necessary to measure by means of the analyzer of the fulfilled gases contents in an exhaust of carbon monoxide (SO) and hydrocarbonic connections. Further it is supposed that such analyzer can be hired or lent - it is irrational to buy it for the amateur mechanic. Alternatively it is necessary to address for conducting this check on car repair shop.
Issue WITH (quality of mix)
When conducting this check it is necessary to be guided by requirements imposed on traffic regulations to contents WITH in exhaust gases.
If it is not possible to achieve decrease in level of contents WITH before its hit in admissible limits (it is supposed that from other points of view of a power supply system and ignition function regularly), it is necessary to assume existence of any defect of system of injection of fuel.
The option when the SO level meets requirements of traffic regulations is possible, but exceeds the norm established by manufacturer.
Issue of hydrocarbonic connections
Having made sure that the level of content in the fulfilled SO gases is normal (or achieve it), you pass to measurement of contents in an exhaust of hydrocarbons. It should not exceed 1200 particles on one million. If the car does not undergo this testing on single turns, repeat it with a frequency of rotation of the engine in 2000 rpm; if now the content of hydrocarbons gets to norm, check can be considered successfully passed.
Excessive content in the fulfilled gases of hydrocarbonic connections can be an oil burning out sign, however with not smaller degree of probability can be caused as well by incomplete combustion of fuel. It is possible to include in number of the possible reasons:
a) Bad condition of spark plugs or wrong candle gap.
b) Violation of installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition owing to malfunctions in a control system of the engine (work of system in the safe mode).
c) The wrong gap of valves, owing to damage or wear of hydrocompensators.
d) Low compression pressure in cylinders.
You remember also that the excessive content of hydrocarbons in the fulfilled gases can be a consequence of violation of functioning of the catalytic converter (if that is included in the car package).
читать книги онлайн